Microsoft issued a critical security bulletin on Tuesday November 18, 2014 (MS14-068) which stated there was a privately reported vulnerability found within the Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) that could allow privilege escalation. The KDC authenticates clients and users, and issues session tickets and temporary session keys to users and computers within an Active Directory environment. The vulnerability exists in implementations of the KDC in Microsoft Windows and exists due to the KDC failing to properly validate signatures, which can result in forged parameters within a Kerberos ticket.
The KDC is a network service that runs on each Domain Controller as part of Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) and by default listens on TCP and UDP port 88. Attackers that have access to a compromised domain user account as well as access to AD DS within an Active Directory environment could leverage the KDC vulnerability remotely. It would then be possible to elevate the privileges of the compromised user account to the role of Domain Administrator by sending the KDC a forged Kerberos ticket that identifies the user as a Domain Administrator. Once an attacker gains Domain Administrator privileges within an Active Directory environment they will be able to compromise any domain-managed system in the environment.
Unlike local privilege escalation vulnerabilities, an attacker that has a valid unprivileged user account within the domain can leverage this vulnerability remotely. Microsoft additionally stated within the security bulletin they are aware of limited targeted attacks that have attempted to exploit this vulnerability. Thus, it is reasonable to assume there is code in the wild that Microsoft has seen attempting to exploit this vulnerability. GuidePoint has not yet discovered enough information to exploit the vulnerability.
Affected Operating Systems
- Windows Server 2003 and higher
- Windows Server 2008 and higher
- Windows Server 2012 and higher
For a complete list of affected hosts please refer to the MS14-068 Security Bulletin. In addition, Microsoft has released patches for Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 and 8.1 as a defense-in-depth hardening of these operating systems. However, the Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 and 8.1 operating systems are not directly vulnerable to this vulnerability.
To identify if an Active Directory environment has been targeted by any known exploits before updates have been applied to the affected systems, review Windows Security Event Log for Event ID 4624. This event is logged when successful logins occur within a domain. If the ‘Security ID’ and ‘Account Name’ fields of the log do not match, even though they should, it could indicate targeted attacks leveraging this vulnerability are underway.
Joe Bialek from the Microsoft Security Research and Defense blog illustrates pre-update detection very well within his detailed write-up of the MS14-068 vulnerability titled “Additional Information About CVE-2014-6324”. For additional information and illustration of pre-update detection it is highly recommended to read this blog post.
To identify if an Active Directory environment is being actively targeted after applying the update to Windows Server 2008R2 and above, Event ID 4769 in the Kerberos Service Ticket Operation event log can be used for detection purposes.
Joe Bialek’s also illustrates post-update detection very well within his detailed write-up of the MS14-068 vulnerability titled “Additional Information About CVE-2014-6324”. Bialek explains event 4769 is a high volume event and it is advisable to only log failures of this event for detection purposes. For additional information and illustration of pre-update detection it is highly recommended to read this blog post.
Microsoft has released an out-of-band patch to remediate the MS14-068 vulnerability. Users should test and deploy the patch to affected systems domain wide. Please refer to the MS14-068 Security Bulletin for more information.